Annotated Bibliography of RTI Resources
This library of online information offers resources on Response to Intervention presented in a variety of formats. Our hope is that you use these resources to gain more knowledge about and a better understanding of effective RTI implementation and its tremendous ability to help all children succeed.
Specific, Measurable Outcome
The statement of a single, specific desired result from an intervention. To be measurable, the outcome should be expressed in observable and quantifiable terms (i.e., Johnny will demonstrate mastery of grade-level basic math calculation skills as measured by a score of 85% or better on the end of the unit test on numerical operations).More Terms »
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Thanks to the Results for Kids: Resources Library at the IDEA Partnership for sharing information for this collection.
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What Is RTI?
Christ, T. J., Burns, M. K., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2005, November). Conceptual confusion within response-to-intervention vernacular: Clarifying meaningful differences. NASP Communiqué, 34(3).
The purpose of this article "…is to propose clarifications to the language related to four separate issues: a) RTI problem solving vs. RTI standard protocol; b) response vs. resistance to intervention; c) response vs. responsiveness to intervention; and d) response to instruction vs. intervention."
Coleman, M. R. (2008). Words can shape the destiny of children in the RTI process. In Council for Exceptional Children.
This article explains the author's concern that "…while there are many positive changes connected with RTI, the language used to describe these changes is not keeping pace. RTI has forced us into new ways of thinking about how we meet children’s needs, yet this new way of thinking remains mired down by language that continues to communicate deficits…" Free
Coleman, M. R., Buysse, V., & Neitzel, J. (2006). Empirical articles on response to intervention. In Recognition and Response.
"Researchers at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute conducted a literature review to identify articles that address features of Response to Intervention (RTI) in school-aged populations. The 14 empirical articles on this page were included in the research synthesis, and served as the research base regarding the efficacy of RTI."
Council for Exceptional Children. (2007). Position on response to intervention: The unique role of special education and special educators. In Council for Exceptional Children.
The Council for Exceptional Children uses this article to discuss their position on Response to Intervention, including information on the following: a) interventions, b) referral to special education, c) team roles, d) children who are twice exceptional, e) professional knowledge and skills, f) research and development, and g) resources.
Council for Exceptional Children. (2006). Response-to-intervention – the promise and the peril. In Council for Exceptional Children.
This article states, "At first glance, response-to-intervention (RTI) is a method to identify learning disabilities. But, RTI could play a much larger role. It has the ability to transform how we educate students—all students."
Council for Exceptional Children. (2007). RTI summit delves into implementation, current and future issues. In Council for Exceptional Children.
The Council for Exceptional Children offers an overview on the U.S. Department of Education’s Summit on Response to Intervention (RTI) held on December 6–7, 2007. This article defines RTI and its language in the IDEA 2006 regulations and summarizes major presentations by experts.
Galvin, M. (2007, April). Implementing Response to Intervention (RTI): Considerations for Practitioners. Your Access to the Region, April 2007. Naperville, IL: Great Lakes West Comprehensive Center at Learning Point Associates.
This article discusses the “changes required in policy and practice” that districts and schools must consider when implementing RTI and “offer[s] guidance regarding how school leaders can manage the effects of the changes that RTI brings to the different levels of the public school system and the stakeholders involved in the changes.”
International Reading Association. (2006). New directions in research: Current issues in special education and reading instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(1).
The International Reading Association provides access to the following articles: a) "A Transactional Perspective on Reading Difficulties and Response to Intervention," b) "Introduction to Response to Intervention: What, Why, and How Valid Is It?" c) "Cultural Considerations With Response to Intervention Models," and d) "RTI (Response to Intervention): Rethinking Special Education for Students With Reading Difficulties (Yet Again)."
Free abstracts – full text for purchase
National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems. (2005). Cultural considerations and challenges in response-to-intervention models: An NCCRESt position statement. In National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems.
This article states, "We at NCCRESt are encouraged by the potential of RTI models to improve educational opportunities for culturally and linguistically diverse students and to reduce their disproportionate representation in special education. At the same time, we are concerned that if we do not engage in dialogue about how culture mediates learning, RTI models will simply be like old wine in a new bottle, in other words, another deficit-based approach to sorting children, particularly children from marginalized communities."
National Center on Response to Intervention. (2010, April). Essential Components of RTI--A Closer Look at Response to Intervention. Washington, DC: National Center on Response to Intervention.
This brief offers information useful to schools planning RTI. It “provides a definition of RTI, reviews essential RTI components, and responds to frequently asked questions. The information presented is intended to provide educators with guidance for RTI implementation that reflects research and evidence-based practices, and supports the implementation of a comprehensive RTI framework."
National Dissemination Center for Children With Disabilities. (2007). Building the legacy: A training curriculum on IDEA 2004. Early intervening services and response to intervention. In National Dissemination Center for Children With Disabilities.
Materials for these two modules include a PowerPoint presentation for use in training, detailed background text and explanation for trainers, handouts for participants, and supplemental resources for trainers.
Scroll to Module 6
Nebraska Department of Education, Response to Intervention Consortium. (n.d.). Introductory RtI training modules [Video].
"The Introductory RtI Training Modules are video presentations designed to provide a brief overview of Response to Intervention and its components." Modules include a) Problem Solving Module, b) Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring, c) Multi-Tiered Intervention Provision: Service Delivery and Student Eligibility, d) Intervention Selection and Implementation, e) School Problem Solving Teams, and f) Practical Issues in Implementing RtI.
Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center. (2004). Responsiveness to intervention. MPRRC Today, 6(3).
This newsletter features articles such as a) "Responsiveness to Intervention: LD Identifier or Schoolwide Improvement?" b) "Understanding Responsiveness to Intervention in Learning Disabilities Determination," c) "Screening to Enhance Equitable Placement (STEEP): A District Model for RtI," d) "Trailblazer Elementary: Responsive Interventions for All Students," e) "Disproportionality—Can RTI Address Associated Issues?" f) "Response to Intervention—It Can Start in Preschool," and g) "Coordinating Resources and Knowledge to Leverage Improved Outcomes for Students."
Free – PDF
National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2006). Response to intervention: An online discussion with Judy Elliott, Assistant Superintendent, Office of School Support Services, Long Beach Unified School District [Interview transcript].
In this online discussion, "Dr. Elliott will be responding to questions on Response to Intervention (RTI)—an approach to identifying students at risk for learning disabilities which has been used successfully in states and school districts nationwide."
Sandomierski, T., Kincaid, D., & Algozzine, B. (2007). Response to intervention and positive behavior support: Brothers from different mothers or sisters with different misters? Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Newsletter, 4(2).
This article states, "Both Response to Intervention and Positive Behavioral Supports are grounded in differentiated instruction. Each approach delimits critical factors and components to be in place at the universal (Tier 1), targeted group (Tier 2), and individual (Tier 3) levels. Our goal is to describe the shared characteristics of these approaches as a basis for highlighting how best to meet the needs of children experiencing academic and social difficulties in school."
Schaughnessy, M. (2006). An interview with Peggy McCardle about response to intervention [Interview transctipt].
Dr. McCardle is chief of the Child Development and Behavior Branch of the Center for Research for Mothers and Children, National Institute for Child Health and Human Development. In this interview, Dr. McCardle answers questions about various aspects of RTI.
Sitzmann, B. H., Hightree, B., & Moritz, L. (n.d.). RtI intervention manual. In Educational Service Unit #1.
This online manual provides an overview of Response to Intervention and scientifically based interventions. It proceeds to describe least intensive and moderate interventions in reading, writing, and math.
Free – PDF
Special EDge. (2006). Response to intervention: An overview. In California Services for Technical Assistance and Training.
This issue includes the following articles: a) "Response to Intervention—What Is It?, Why Do It?, Is It Worth It?" b) "Intervening Effectively in Literacy," c) "Response to Mathematics Intervention," d) "RTI and Positive Behavior Supports," and e) "A Systems Approach to School Improvement: How to Make Change Happen."
The IDEA Partnership, National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (n.d.). Response to intervention: A partnership collection. In IDEA Partnership.
This online resource "…is designed to assist you in learning more about Response to Intervention and best practices for its implementation on all levels—federal, state, and local. The links help frame your work around RTI for your stakeholders: (a) families; (b) higher education; (c) local administrators (superintendents and principals); (d) policymakers; and (e) teachers and related service providers. Representatives of national organizations, who are engaged with their stakeholders on the issue of RTI, offer suggestions for sharing and dialogue based on the amount of time available to you. Additionally, suggested activities, materials, and resources are identified as possible valuable tools for your use."
UCLA School of Mental Health: Center for Mental Health in Schools. (2006). Addressing Barriers to Learning. In IDEA Partnership.
This article discusses the major purposes and components of RTI. The author states, "…if RTI is understood to be part and parcel of a comprehensive system of classroom and school-wide learning supports, schools will be in a position not only to address problems effectively early after their onset, but will prevent many from occurring."
Free – PDF
VanDerHeyden, A. M. (2006). RTI myths and representations: Looking at data and experience. NASP Communique, 34(6).
This article "…will examine a series of RTI concerns/RTI myths that have been identified by practitioners across the country who are working on implementing RTI. Answers to these issues are provided based both on the current literature as well as on the author’s experience implementing RTI in practice."
(2007). Alexa Posny, Kansas Commissioner of Education, talks about multi-tiered system of support. (2007). [Video]. YouTube, San Bruno, CA: USA.
The commissioner discusses the multi-tiered system of support in terms of the potential it has for the way schools operate, including bringing together general and special education, and new uses of resources.
Baer, R. D., Griffin, M., Franco, F., Fast, P., Loveless, T., Carlson, V., et. al. (2006). Integrating response to intervention and severe discrepancy in specific learning disabilities determination: The best of two worlds. In Utah Special Educator.
This article reviews potential strengths of the traditional discrepancy model of classifying students with specific learning disabilities and of the alternate model, Response to Intervention. It demonstrates how the strengths of each can be integrated into a referral assessment model.
Cortiella, C. (2006). IDEA 2004 close up: Evaluation and eligibility for specific learning disabilities. In Great Schools.
This article features an explanation of "…some big changes in federal laws on special education evaluation and eligibility." Free
Council for Exceptional Children. (2007). Identifying learning disabilities. In Council for Exceptional Children.
This article outlines advantages and disadvantages of both the IQ–achievement discrepancy model for identification of learning disabilities and the Response to Intervention (RTI) model. It also summarizes CEC’s position on LD identification.
Division for Learning Disabilities. (n.d.). DLD’s views on response to intervention and learning disabilities. In Council for Exceptional Children.
This article states, "When Response to Intervention (RTI) was established in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004, the landscape for special education changed. Though the provision of scientific, research-based instruction for all children in the general education curriculum is a universally accepted component of RTI, the Division for Learning Disabilities (DLD) is concerned about its implementation and use to identify learning disabilities."
Division for Learning Disabilities. (n.d.). Thinking about response to intervention and learning disabilities: A teacher’s guide. In Council for Exceptional Children.
"The Division for Learning Disabilities (DLD) developed this booklet to help inform teachers about the basis for RTI and its implications for serving students, especially those who have Learning Disabilities. Written by a team of DLD members, it provides essential background about RTI, including explanations about tiered models of intervention and the role of progress monitoring, implications for people who will be affected by RTI (teachers, parents, and students), a summary of what we know and do not know about RTI, and much more."
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Response to intervention as a method of LD identification: Four case studies. In Tennessee Department of Education.
This article states, "To illustrate different decisions within an RTI method of LD identification, we present four case studies. The case studies are set in a "Tennessee Elementary" school at first grade in the area of reading. Before presenting these case studies, we briefly describe the measure, the Tier 1 instructional context, and the nature of the Tier 2 diagnostic instructional trial used in this school’s RTI identification process."
Free – PDF
Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness to intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3).
In this article, the authors review the background that has led to a call for alternative methods of identifying learning disabilities. They also discuss the two basic versions of Response to Intervention—the problem-solving model and the standard-protocol approach.
Abstract free, full text for purchase
Horowitz, S. H. (2005). Response to intervention: A primer—the facts about LD classification. In National Center for Learning Disabilities.
This article reviews history on the identification of learning disabilities as well as the benefits and core features of the Response-to-Intervention framework.
Johnson, E., Mellard, D. F., & Byrd, S. E. (2006). Challenges with SLD identification: What is the SLD problem? Teaching Exceptional Children PLUS, 3(1).
The author states, "In this article, we summarize the factors that exacerbate the SLD problem and present a tool that teams may find helpful as they work towards improved SLD identification methods."
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities. (2005). Responsiveness to intervention and learning disabilities. In National Center for Learning Disabilities.
This article states, "The purpose of this National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities report is to examine the concepts, potential benefits, practical issues, and unanswered questions associated with responsiveness to intervention (RTI) and learning disabilities. A brief overview of the approach is provided, including attributes, characteristics, and promising features, as well as issues, concerns, unanswered questions, and research needs. Issues related to RTI implementation, including use as an eligibility mechanism, parent participation, structure and components, professional roles and competencies, and needed research, are addressed."
National Research Center on Learning Disabilities. (2003). Materials from the responsiveness-to-intervention Symposium. In National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.
"The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities, a collaborative project of staff at Vanderbilt University and the University of Kansas, sponsored this two-day symposium focusing on responsiveness-to-intervention (RTI) issues. The speakers, discussants, and participants assembled represented the wide diversity of individuals with a vested interest in LD determination issues. Advocates, instructional staff, researchers, and state-level education officials brought their collective and considerable expertise to the discussions." This online resource offers papers presented during the symposium, presenters’ PowerPoint presentations, and video of the symposium sessions.
Free - PDF
National Research Center on Learning Disabilities. (2006). Integrating RTI within the specific learning disability determination process. Materials from the National SEA Conference on SLD Determination. In National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.
This online resource provides access to a wide range of materials from the National SEA Conference on SLD Determination, including presentations, handouts, and videos.
National Research Center on Learning Disabilities. (2007). Learning disabilities resource kit: Specific learning disabilities determination procedures and responsiveness to intervention. In National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.
"NRCLD has developed this kit to help you navigate changes related to specific learning disability determination and responsiveness to intervention." Contents include a) General Information, b) Tools for Change, c) Getting Started Manual, d) Response to Intervention manual, e) PowerPoint presentations, and (f) Parent pages.
Free – PDF
National Research Center on Learning Disabilities. (n.d.). Responsiveness to intervention in the SLD determination process: Overview. In Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education.
This article will "…provide a conceptual overview of responsiveness to intervention (RTI)—including hypothetical examples of how RTI might operate within a school setting and for a particular student—and to discuss its role within the larger context of specific learning disabilities (SLD) determination."
Oregon Department of Education, Office of Student Learning Partnerships. (2005). Identification of students with learning disabilities under the IDEA 2004: Oregon response to intervention. In Oregon Department of Education.
"This document provides information to assist school districts in designing and adopting an RTI approach that best fits the district, is technically sound, and is sustainable. It also reviews current information regarding the use of other evaluation approaches. Whatever model the district uses to implement RTI, such an adoption will affect more than a district’s special education and evaluation departments. RTI requires a way of thinking about instruction, academic achievement, and individual differences that makes it impossible to implement without fully involving general education."
Reschley, D. J., Hosp, J. L., & Schmied, C. M. (2003). And miles to go: State SLD requirements and authoritative recommendations. In National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.
"This paper focuses on the major events leading to the widespread rejection of the discrepancy criterion and an analysis of current State SLD requirements in relation to proposed changes in specific learning disabilities (SLD) classification criteria."
Speece, D. (n.d.). How progress monitoring assists decision making in a response to instruction framework. In National Center on Student Progress Monitoring.
The author of this article states, "My colleagues and I studied a response-to-instruction model as a method of identifying children for special education services….This process generated a number of examples of how weekly progress monitoring, which includes systematic data interpretation and teacher action, is central to good decision-making in an RTI framework. Two children are discussed whose profiles illustrate different aspects of the progress monitoring-RTI interface."
Torgesen, J. K. (2007). Using an RTI model to guide early reading instruction: Effects on identification rates for students with learning disabilities. In Florida Center for Reading Research.
In this article "…the author focuses on the impact of the RTI instructional model on rates of identification of students with learning disabilities. He presents data from a large number of schools in Florida that illustrate the immediate impact this approach to early reading instruction is having on the percentages of students in those schools that are being diagnosed as having a learning disability."
Free – PDF
VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Gilbertson, D. (2007). A multi-year evaluation of the effects of a response to intervention: (RTI) model on identification of children for special education. Journal of School Psychology, 45(2), 225–256. Retrieved from Science Direct Database.
This article "…examines the effects of implementation of a systematic response to intervention (RTI) model on the identification and evaluation of children for special education."
Abstract free, full text for purchase
Weld, R. J. (2005). Response to intervention: An alternative to traditional eligibility criteria for students with disabilities. In Education Evolving.
"This publication is the latest E|E report on the changing face of public education, both nationally and in Minnesota. The report describes and provides a review of the research on an alternative learning model called Response to Intervention (RTI). This model may be used for any student experiencing difficulty in school, but has particular application in the Special Education environment."
WestEd. (2004). Responsiveness to intervention: A promising alternative for identifying students with learning disabilities. R&D Alert, 6(1).
This article explains concerns with the discrepancy model for learning disability identification and explains the use of Response to Intervention as an alternative.
Free – PDF
Zirkel, P. A. (2006). SLD eligibility: A users’ guide to the new regulations. Lawrence, KS: National Reἀsearch Center on Learning Disabilities.
In this article, Zirkel discusses the 2006 regulations that were issued to implement the 2004 amendments of IDEA. “One of the new provisions concerns responsiveness to intervention (“RTI”), which is an alternate approach that starts with scientific, research-based instruction in general education and offers increasing levels of intervention based on continuous progἀress monitoring.”
Free – PDF
Burdette, P. (2007). Response to intervention as it relates to early intervening services: Recommendations. In Project FORUM. National Association of State Directors of Special Education.
Project FORUM conducted a policy forum on Response to Intervention (RTI) and Early Intervening Services (EIS) in October 2006. "Based on a vision of 'fully implemented, high quality RTI and EIS programs,' the identified goals of the policy forum were to (a) develop policy recommendations to support effective implementation of RTI and EIS, and (b) identify common ground from which various stakeholders can implement RTI and EIS. This proceedings document provides legislative background pertaining to RTI and EIS; OSEP's description of RTI; and a summary of barriers and recommendations generated by participants in the policy forum."
Free – PDF
National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (2005). Response to intervention RtI Project. In National Association of State Directors of Special Education.
"NASDSE's Response to Intervention (RtI) initiative began in response to a need from the entire special education community to have more information about RtI." This online resource provides access to books, satellite conferences, research, and more relating to RTI.
National Research Center on Learning Disabilities. (2007). How can early intervening services and responsiveness to intervention work together? [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author.
This brief assists parents and practitioners in understanding how RTI can be used to meet the “early intervening services” provision of the 2004 reauthorization of IDEA.
Norlander, K., & Kemp, K. (2007). RTI tackles the LD explosion: A good IDEA becomes law [VHS or DVD]. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources Inc.
"Determined to tackle the LD explosion, Congress introduced a whole new approach for identifying children with learning disabilities. While it authorizes an assessment of a child’s response to research-based reading instruction in regular education—referred to as Response to Intervention (RTI)—as a prerequisite to referral, it eliminates continued reliance on the...discrepancy model. (This video describes) how these seemingly minor changes in federal law place new and far reaching demands on the entire school community and how they serve as a powerful catalyst designed to redefine the roles and responsibilities of special education and general education in tackling illiteracy."
Times, C., Lewis, D. & McCann, E. (2009, December 31). Response to Intervention (RTI) Policy (C. Times, Ed.) Rapid Response. No. 000102. Metairie, LA: Southeast Comprehensive Center at SEDL.
This document outlines state policies that focus on RTI.
Zirkel, P. A. (2006). The legal meaning of specific learning disabilities. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
"The 2004 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and its currently proposed regulations include significant changes with regard to the 'severe discrepancy' and 'response to intervention' (RTI) criteria for SLD eligibility. … This monograph provides what is not available in the literature to date—a comprehensive and objective synthesis of the various applicable sources of law, including the various pertinent U.S. Department of Education policy interpretations and the more than 80 published hearing/review officer and court decisions under the IDEA."
Funding for RTI
Knudsen, W. W. (2008, July 28) Federal Guidance on Coordinated Early Intervening Services. (n.d.) Washington, DC: Department of Education.
On July 28, 2008, the Office of Special Education Programs issued a “guidance to provide States with information regarding the use of funds provided under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act by local educational agencies (LEAs) to develop and implement coordinated early intervening services (CEIS) for students who are currently not identified as needing special education.
National Center on Response to Intervention. (2010, December) Response to Intervention (RTI): Funding Questions and Answers. Information Brief. Washington, DC: National Center on Response to Intervention.
“This document provides written responses from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) on the use of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) funds for the implementation of RTI and answers eight commonly asked questions on funding RTI.”
U.S. Department of Education. Implementing RTI Using Title 1, Title III, and CEIS Funds: Key Issues for Decision-makers. (n.d.) In National Center on Response to Intervention.
This PowerPoint and accompanying audio presentation offer useful information on how funds under Title I and Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and Coordinated Early Learning Services (CEIS) and funds under the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) can be used to support Response to Intervention implementation efforts in public schools.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. (2006). IDEA Regulations: Early Intervening Services. In U.S. Department of Education.
The Office of Special Education Programs offers a series of resources to assist individuals in understanding the final regulatory requirements regarding early intervening services. Resources include: topic briefs, video clip, training materials, presentations, and a question and answer document.
U.S. Department of Education. (2009). American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: Using ARRA Funds Provided Through Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to Drive School Reform and Improvement. In National Center on Response to Intervention.
This document describes how ARRA funds can be used to support IDEA Part B, including how these funds can be used to support an RTI framework. Topics include: professional development for staff, curriculum- based screening, progress monitoring, formative assessment, and academic and behavioral support in a regular education environment.
The Advocacy Institute. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. IDEA and the Recovery Act. In IDEAMoney Watch.
IDEAMoney Watch is a project of The Advocacy Institute and is tracking the use of federal funds provided to local school districts through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This document offers answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about funding through the ARRA. Specific information about the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is also included.
Models of RTI and Implementation Procedures
Allington, R. L., & Walmsley, S. A. (Eds.). (2007). No quick fix, the RTI edition: Rethinking literacy programs in America’s public schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
This book offers a "…framework for the current Response to Intervention (RTI) initiative. Outlining the key factors essential for effective reform of early literacy programs, this groundbreaking resource presents: (a) a framework for the comprehensive redesign of early reading instruction and early intervention services; (b) proven national models of early intervention, along with their impacts on reducing referrals for special education services; (c) a unified intervention delivery model that calls for an end to fragmented special services; and (d) a more cost-effective means of intervention that meets the needs of instructionally needy children."
American Institutes for Research. (2009). RTI state database. In National Center on Response to Intervention.
This database consists of information presented for each state regarding its RTI framework, RTI-related State Performance Plans or State Professional Development Grants and use of RTI for Specific Learning Disability eligibility. In addition, resources developed by states, districts, or territories in the U.S. on a variety of topics related to RTI are included in the database.
Batsche, G. M. (2007). Problem-solving and response to intervention: Focusing on improved academic achievement for ALL students. In Alabama Department of Education.
This PowerPoint presentation describes the problem-solving process and the RTI process, summarizes research and impact data, and provides an in-depth review of essential components and how they work.
Bocala, C., Mello, D., Reedy, K., and Lacireno-Paquet, N. (2009). Features of state response to intervention initiatives in Northeast and Islands Region states (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2009–No. 083). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands.
This report on the use of Response to Intervention in nine Northeast and Island Region jurisdictions examined how seven of those jurisdictions used or promoted RTI as a way to support struggling students in both the general education setting and for determining special education eligibility.
Free - PDF
Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2005). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources Inc.
This book is a "…comprehensive guide to implementing a school-wide response to intervention (RTI) program. The book is geared to helping practitioners understand and respond to No Child Left Behind and to the new special education eligibility guidelines outlined in IDEA 2004. Presented are the theoretical and empirical foundations of the approach and a clear, 10-step model for conducting RTI procedures with students, including those from diverse backgrounds, who are experiencing learning difficulties."
Bryant, D. (2005). An emerging model: Three-tier mathematics intervention model (K-2). In Center on Instruction.
"This presentation, delivered at the State ISC (Information Sharing Community) Meeting on October 3 and 4, 2005 by Dr. Diane Bryant of The University of Texas at Austin, describes one example of a multi-tiered intervention model for math in grades K - 2. It includes a PowerPoint and transcript; other helpful resources on math interventions within a Response to Intervention framework are provided at the end of the PowerPoint. Audio of the event is also available online."
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Burns, M. K., Appleton, J. J., & Stehouwer, J. D. (2005). Meta-analytic review of responsiveness-to-intervention research: Examining field-based and research implemented models. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23(4), 381–394. Retrieved from National Dissemination Center for Children With Disabilities Research Database.
"This meta-analysis considered the relationship between Response-to-Intervention (RTI) and systemic and student achievement outcomes. Four existing large-scale RTI models were analyzed alongside RTI models implemented within a research context. Twenty-four effect sizes and unbiased estimates of effect (UEE)* were computed. The UEE for student achievement and systemic outcomes both exceeded 1.0. The UEE for systemic outcomes among large-scale RTI models was significantly greater than those implemented within a research context."
Abstract available free – full text for purchase
Coleman, M. R., Buysse, V., & Neitzel, J. (2006). Recognition and response: An early intervening system for young children at risk for learning disabilities—research synthesis and recommendations. In National Center for Learning Disabilities.
"This document describes what is known about an early intervening system being developed for young children (i.e., 3 to 5 year-olds), called Recognition and Response. The Recognition and Response system is an emerging early childhood practice designed to help parents and teachers respond to learning difficulties in young children who may be at risk for learning disabilities as early as possible, beginning at age 3 or 4, before they experience school failure and before they are referred for formal evaluation and possible placement in special education."
Free – PDF
Echevarria, J. & Hasbrouck, J. (2009, July). Response to Intervention and English Language Learners. CREATE Brief. Houston, TX: Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners.“This brief is designed for educators who are learning about or have begun the process of implementing RTI to help them tailor its use to meet the needs of English learners.” Free
Ehren, B. J., Ehren, T. C. and Proly, J. L. (2009). Response to Intervention: An action guide for school leaders. Alexandria, VA: Educational Research Service.
This book offers information on how to successfully launch and refine an RTI framework and can be used as a tool to facilitate buy-in and support from teachers and school leaders. Included are ready-made discussion questions and examples of implementation at the elementary, middle, and high school levels.
Elliott, J., Batsche, D., & Tilly, W. D. (2011). Response to Intervention Blueprints: State Level Edition. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc.
This Blueprint offers state education agencies concrete guidance on implementing RTI. It “outlines the components of a state-level infrastructure that is designed to support effective implementation of RtI practices at the district and building levels. States will need to assess these components in the context of their own structures and relationships with both their districts and schools.”
Elliott, J., & Morrison, D. (2008). Response to Intervention Blueprints: District Level Edition. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc.
This Blueprint offers district leaders “a framework around which implementation of RTI can be built.” It “outlines the components of a district level strategy to implement RtI district-wide and provide ongoing support to individual sites. Districts will need to assess these components in the context of their own structures and relationships with both their state education agencies and the individual schools that make up their district.”
Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., and Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom: A practice guide. (NCEE 2008-012). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
“This guide is intended to help elementary school educators as well as school and district administrators develop and implement effective prevention and intervention strategies that promote positive student behavior. [It also] includes concrete recommendations and indicates the quality of the evidence that supports them.”
Fuchs, L. S., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Paulson, K., Bryant, J., & Hamlett, C. I. (2006). Responsiveness to Intervention: Preventing and Identifying Mathematics Disability. In Teaching LD.
This article describes how the authors implemented the principles and procedures of Response to Intervention with children in 41 first-grade classrooms in ten schools. Implementation details and findings are described.
Free – PDF
Galvin, M. (2007). Implementing response to intervention: Considerations for practitioners. In Great Lakes West Comprehensive Assistance Center: Learning Points Associates.
"This brief article will provide a background on the attributes of RTI initiatives, discuss changes required in policy and practice as we move toward RTI implementation, and offer guidance regarding how school leaders can manage the effects of the changes that RTI brings to the different levels of the public school system and the stakeholders involved in the changes."
Free – PDF
Gersten, R., Beckmann, S., Clarke, B., Foegen, A., Marsh, L., Star, J.R., & Witzel, B. (2009). Assisting students struggling with mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for elementary and middle schools (NCEE 2009 – 4060). Washington DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
“This guide provides eight specific recommendations intended to help teachers, principals, and school administrators use Response to Intervention (RtI) to identify students who need assistance in mathematics and to address the needs of these students through focused interventions. [It also] provides suggestions on how to carry out each recommendation and explains how educators can overcome potential roadblocks to implementing [them].”
Gersten, R., Clarke, B.S., & Jordan, N.C. (2007). Screening for mathematics difficulties in K-3 students. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
This report examines “the effectiveness of existing early screening measures and discusses the key features needed to screen kindergarten through third grade students for difficulties in mathematics. “ This link also includes a webinar in which author Dr. Ben Clarke discusses the report.
Gersten, R., Compton, D., Connor, C.M., Dimino, J., Santoro, L., Linan-Thompson, S., and Tilly, W.D. (2009). Assisting students struggling with reading: Response to intervention and multi-tier intervention for reading in the primary grades. A practice guide. (NCEE 2009 – 4045). Washington DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
“This guide offers specific recommendations to help educators identify students in need of intervention and implement evidence-based interventions to promote their reading achievement. It also describes how to carry out each recommendation, including how to address potential roadblocks in implementing them.”
Hall, S. L. (2007). Implementing response to intervention: A principal’s guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
In this book, "The author presents an accessible step-by-step action plan for putting the RTI process in motion, emphasizes the critical role administrators play in ensuring successful implementation in their schools, and helps school leaders to: (a) formulate a comprehensive assessment plan that includes an assessment calendar and data management system; (b) design a year-long staff development plan to train teachers in using data for making instructional decisions; (c) use data in grade-level, teacher, and parent meetings; and (d) motivate staff for optimum success without overwhelming them."
Harris-Murri, N., King, K., & Rostenberg, D. (2006). Reducing disproportionate minority representation in special education programs for children with emotional disturbances: Toward a culturally responsive response to intervention model. Education & Treatment of Children, 29(4).
The authors of this article "present an overview of the RTI model as initially intended for use in determining IDEA eligibility category of Specific Learning Disability (SLD), discuss current literature that examines the use of RTI for evaluation of Emotional Disturbances (ED), and highlight research-based instruction and intervention practices of culturally responsive pedagogy. Then, (they) discuss the integration of such practices into an RTI model for the evaluation of ED."
Free – PDF
Knoff, H.M. (2009). Implementing Response-To-Intervention at the School, District, and State Levels: Functional Assessment, Data-based Problem Solving, and Evidence-based Academic and Behavioral Interventions. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
Published as an e-book, this comprehensive "how-to" resource provides step-by-step guidance in RTI implementation from a practitioner's perspective. It addresses: a data-based, functional assessment problem-solving approach; how to monitor progress at the middle and high school levels; the importance of teacher consultation relative to treatment integrity; how to change the school system in such areas as strategic planning and year-end articulation; resource analysis and management; recruitment and retention; professional development; supervision; and a middle school RTI case study and implementation action plan.
Kosanovich, M. L., Weinstein, C., & Goldman, E. (2009). Using Student Center Activities to differentiate instruction. A guide for teachers. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
This guide “describes a suite of Student Center Activities (SCAs) [designed by the Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR) that offer] K–5 classroom teachers a wide range of activities that can engage students in differentiated reading activities during small-group work in the classroom. The entire suite of activities and extensive professional development materials, including video clips, may be downloaded from the [FCRR] website.” This link also includes a webinar in which Debby Houston Miller of the Center on Instruction discusses this guide and identifies how it may be helpful to regional comprehensive centers.
Kurns, S. & Tilly, W. D. (2008). Response to Intervention Blueprints: School Level Edition. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Inc.
This Blueprint offers school leaders “a framework around which implementation of RTI can be built.” It “outlines the components of a school building level strategy to implement RtI district-wide and provide ongoing support to individual sites. Schools will need to assess these components in the context of their own structure relationships with both their district and state education agencies.”
Marchand-Martella, N. E., Ruby, S. F., & Martella, R. C. (2007). Intensifying reading instruction for students within a three-tier model: Standard-protocol and problem solving approaches within a response-to-intervention (RTI) system. Teaching Exceptional Children PLUS, 3(5).
The article states, "Response to Intervention (RTI) provides a challenge for schools to deliver appropriate and scientifically validated reading instruction to all students through a three-tier model. We provide a clear example of how one empirically supported program was implemented within a three-tier model for K-3 students." (Their) example highlights the efficiency and effectiveness of a standard-protocol approach with problem solving.
Free – PDF
McCook, J. E. (Ed.). (2006). The RTI guide: Developing and implementing a model in your schools. West Palm Beach, FL: LRP Publications.
This book "is the ideal launch pad to putting a Response to Intervention model to work for your schools. This hands-on resource examines the critical components to developing and implementing an effective RTI model and spells out key phases and specific tasks—putting essential guidance and groundwork at your fingertips."
McCook, J. E., & Witt, J. C. (2006). Getting ready for RTI: Staff training on key principles, implementation issues [Video]. West Palm Beach, FL: LRP Publications.
"This 28-minute video covers the basis of RTI, its importance and core principles, giving trainees a solid introduction to the RTI approach. Getting Ready for RTI also provides practical applications of the tiered RTI process—so your staff understands the service delivery system and how interventions, student progress monitoring, and instructional decision-making fit into the RTI framework."
Mellard, D. (2005). Responsiveness to intervention: Implementation in schools. In Great Schools.
"In this article, SchwabLearning.org asks Daryl Mellard, Ph.D., a principal investigator at the Center for Research on Learning Disabilities at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, to describe important features of RTI and how this approach might affect school practices, including parent involvement."
Mellard, D., & Johnson, E. (2007). RTI: A practitioner’s guide to implementing response to intervention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
"Written by leading special education researchers with the National Research Center on Learning Disabilities and the University of Kansas, this comprehensive yet accessible reference provides administrators with practical guidelines for launching RTI in their schools. Highlighting the powerful role that RTI can play in prevention, early intervention, and determining eligibility for special services, the authors cover the three tiers of RTI, schoolwide screening, progress monitoring, and changes in school structures and individual staff roles."
National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) and the Council of Administrators of Special Education (CASE) of the Council for Exceptional Children. (2006). Response to intervention: A joint paper. In Council of Administrators in Special Education, Inc.
NASDSE and CASE "have joined together to prepare this overview of Response to Intervention (RtI) to share with both general and special educators. It is our goal to engage the general education community in conversations and strategies to provide knowledge and technical assistance to help implement this successful approach to teaching all children, including students with disabilities."
Free – PDF
National Research Center on Learning Disabilities. (n.d.). School-based RTI practices. In National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.
"In 2002, the U.S. Department of Education asked NRCLD to identify, describe, and evaluate responsiveness to intervention in elementary schools…. The researchers initially considered more than 60 schools across the country; 41 of those schools submitted information. NRCLD research staff reviewed the extensive information from these schools and judged that 19 of them engaged in one or more of the following commendable practices: (a) school-wide screening, (b) progress monitoring, (c) tiered service delivery, (d) data-based decision making, (e) parent involvement, and (f) fidelity of implementation. (In this online resource), NCRLD draws on this work to provide real-life examples of components of RTI service delivery models."
New England Comprehensive Center. (2007). Reaching all students: A conversation about response to intervention [Webinar].
This webinar includes a description of RTI, its features, and advantages, describes implementation and results in the Vail Unified School District, and provides an overview of RTI at Wolcott Elementary School.
Newman-Gonchar, R., Clarke, B., & Gersten, R. (2009). A summary of nine key studies: Multi-tier intervention and response to interventions for students struggling in mathematics. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
This report gives information on “evidence-based practices for Tier 2 interventions and how to use RTI in mathematics [and] gives a critical technical analysis and review of research on RTI and multi-tiered instructional systems.”
Rivera, M. O., Moughamian, A. C., Lesaux, N. K., & Francis, D. J. (2008). Language and reading interventions for English language learners and English language learners with disabilities. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
This report “explores issues and makes recommendations related to meeting the needs of English learners with limited language proficiency or learning disabilities, or both.” The “Instruction and Intervention” section of the report offers recommendations that “concern the use of the Response to Intervention (RTI) framework in delivering instruction and interventions to English language learners (recommendation 1), interventions for students in the early grades (recommendations 2, 3, and 4), and interventions for students in upper grades (recommendations 5 and 6).”
Sawyer, R., Holland, D., & Detgen, A. (2008). State policies and procedures and selected local implementation practices in Response to Intervention in the six Southeast Region states (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2008–No. 063). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast.
This report discusses how three school districts and six state education agencies in the southeast region of the United States have gone about implementing RTI in their school district or state and their reasons behind implementing RTI.
Scammacca, N., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Wanzek, J., & Torgesen, J. K. (2007). Extensive reading interventions in grades k- 3: From research to practice. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
“The report includes a narrative summary of  research studies [conducted between 1995 and 2005], a synthesis of their findings to determine the relative effectiveness of interventions for struggling early readers, and an outline of the implications of these findings for [policy and] practice. This link also includes a webinar in which authors Dr. Sharon Vaughn and Dr. Jeanne Wanzek discuss the report.
Spectrum K12, American Association of School Administrators, Council of Administrators of Special Education, National Association of State Directors of Special Education, & State Title 1 Directors. (2009). Response to intervention (RTI) adoption survey. In Spectrum K12.
Spectrum K12 and partners conducted a web-based survey of district administrators to gauge the extent to which RTI has been adopted and implemented. Results include key findings on: RTI Adoption, RTI Implementation Barriers, RTI Impact on Student Achievement, and Funding and Support of RTI. A similar survey completed in 2008 is also available for download.
Tackett, K. K., Roberts, G., Baker, S., & Scammaca, N. (2009). Implementing Response to Intervention: Practices and perspectives from five schools. Frequently asked questions. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
This report uses a Frequent Asked Questions (FAQ) format to discuss the collective experience of three elementary schools, one intermediate school, and one middle school in implementing different elements of RTI. This link also includes a webinar in which author Kathryn Klingler Tackett discusses the report.
Bender, W. N., & Shores, C. (2007). Response to intervention: A practical guide for every teacher. Council for Exceptional Children: Arlington, VA.
"For educators new to the RTI approach, this book presents an overview of key concepts with guidelines for accountability practices that benefit students in inclusive classrooms. Presenting the three tiers of RTI techniques, the authors demonstrate how general and special education teachers can use research-based interventions effectively to individualize instruction, monitor individual student progress, and implement strategies to meet the specific needs of all students."
Center on Instruction.(2010, January 14). Virtual Working Meeting: Fostering Collaboration between General and Special Educators.
On January 14, 2010, the Center for Instruction held a virtual working meeting for Regional Comprehensive Center staff members, representatives from the Regional Resource Centers, and representatives from Alaska, California, Idaho, Mississippi, Pennsylvania, Texas, Wyoming, and Vermont. “During this working meeting, staff presented research and theory on collaboration supported by actual examples of collaboration collected from schools that COI-SpEd has collaborated with in past and ongoing RTI projects. Participants then engaged in a discussion to develop key recommendations aimed at helping SEAs foster effective collaborative relationships between general ed and special ed at the local level.” The study guide, which is available to download, offers resources on this subject.
Decker, D. M., Bolt, S. E., & Triezenberg, H. L. (2006). Bridging the RTI training and practice gap through RTI-focused internships. NASP Communique, 35(1).
The authors of this article "strongly encourage current pre-service students to seek out placements in internship sites that will provide quality training and supervision in the development of RTI-related skills." They offer a set of coursework recommendations, considerations in selecting an internship site, preparation before beginning an internship, and recommendations for trainers on preparing students for RTI internships.
Ehren, B. J. (Ed) (2005). Series of articles related to Response to Intervention in speech-language pathology. (2005). Topics in Language Disorders (25)2.
This issue of Topics in Language Disorders features six articles related to Response to Intervention: a) "An Overview of Responsiveness to Intervention: What Practitioners Ought to Know," b) "Responsiveness to Intervention: Roles for Speech-Language Pathologists in the Prevention and Identification of Learning Disabilities," c) "The Responsiveness to Intervention Approach and Language Impairment," (d) "Speech-Language Pathologists' Involvement in Responsiveness to Intervention Activities: A Complement to Curriculum-Relevant Practice," e) "Responsiveness to Intervention: Teaching Before Testing Helps Avoid Labeling," and f) "Leadership Opportunities in the Context of Responsiveness to Intervention Responsiveness to Intervention Activities."
Abstracts free, full text for purchase
Hosp, J. L. (2006). Implementing RTI: Assessment practices and response to intervention. NASP Communique, 34(7).
"In practice, most school psychologists have found that Response to Intervention (RTI) actually makes greater use of their skill sets than whatever their role before. Because of its reliance on data to make decisions, RTI can enhance the need for a school psychologist and her/his skills in a school. However, some changes in practice may be necessary and it is important for the school psychologist to be aware of these in order to help others navigate them." This article reviews these changes.
Ikeda, M. J., Rahn-Blakeslee, A., Niebling, B. C., Allison, R., & Stumme, J. (2006). Evaluating intervention outcomes: Evaluating evidence-based practice in response-to-intervention systems. NASP Communique, 34(8).
The article’s authors state that, "…it is our goal is to discuss some of the important questions and issues around evaluating the impact of educational and psychological practices as they occur within an RTI framework, principally the role of school psychologists in RTI systems. Issues that are of particular interest in this discussion are: (a) the role of school psychologist as a scientist-practitioner, (b) applying a scientist-practitioner framework to RTI practices, and (c) promoting socially relevant outcomes."
International Reading Association. (2007). Implications for Reading Teachers in Response to Intervention (RTI).
“The design, implementation, and evaluation of an RTI approach creates new opportunities and greater need for reading specialists/literacy coaches, while also requiring their active participation in more familiar but expanded roles.” This paper discusses these new roles and offers resources for reading teachers in schools implementing RTI.
International Reading Association. (2006). New roles in response to intervention: Creating success for schools and children. In International Reading Association.
"Over the last nine months the groups who are represented here, and others met to discuss how best to encourage the use of RTI and each school's unique range of professionals to meet the education needs of all of their students. This group of papers represents a different approach to working on public policy. We didn't seek an agreement on specific text, rather we sought to describe how professionals could take active roles to contribute their unique knowledge and perspective in new ways for each child’s needs."
Free – PDF
International Reading Association. (n.d.). Implications for reading teachers in Response to Intervention (RTI). In International Reading Association.
"The design, implementation, and evaluation of an RTI approach creates new opportunities and greater need for reading specialists/literacy coaches, while also requiring their active participation in more familiar but expanded roles." This article describes the role of reading specialists within the RTI framework.
Justice, L. M. (2006). Evidence-based practice, response to intervention, and the prevention of reading difficulties. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 37, 284–297.
"This article provides an evidence-based perspective on what school communities can do to lower the prevalence of reading difficulties among their pupils through preventive interventions. It also delineates the roles that speech-language pathologists (SLPs) might play in these interventions."
Free to ASHA members, available for purchase to others
Montgomery, J. K., & Moore-Brown, B. (2006). Response to intervention: An alternative to special education. [Audio CD and manual]. In American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
This resource shows how speech-language pathologists "can work as part of an RTI team, with special focus on a language/literacy team using the five building blocks of reading from the National Reading Panel."
Movit, M., Petrykowska, I., & Woodruff, D. (2010, May). Using School Leadership Teams to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners. Information Brief. Washington, DC: National Center on Response to Intervention.
This information brief discusses the National Center on Response to Intervention’s recommendations for schools and districts to “establish leadership teams that focus on issues affecting culturally and linguistically diverse students” to “effectively [address] the needs of all students.”
Torgesen, J. K. (2006) Intensive reading interventions for struggling readers in early elementary school: A principal’s guide. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
This article offers principals “guiding principles, along with some examples of how those principles can be operationalized, to develop an effective school-level system for meeting the instructional needs of all students”. This link also includes a webinar in which author Joe Torgesen discusses this guide.
Ukrainetz, T. A. (2006). The Implications of RTI and EBP for SLPs: Commentary on L. M. Justice. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 37, 298–303.
This article "…responds to Justice's article on response to intervention (RTI) and evidence-based practice (EBP) for reading instruction. The educational changes brought about by RTI and EBP provide an opportunity as well as a challenge for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to make fundamental changes in service delivery."
Free to ASHA members, available for purchase to others
Whitmire, K. A. (2006). Responsiveness to intervention and IDEA: The roles for speech-language pathologists. [Recorded course]. In American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
"Under IDEA '04, a school district can use 15% of IDEA funds for early intervening services. Generally implemented as the responsiveness-to-intervention (RtI) approach, this offers new opportunities for SLPs to be involved with at-risk students and to expand indirect and consultative services. IDEA '04 also allows school districts the option of using students' response to instruction to identify specific learning disabilities, resulting in changes to the way that SLPs may approach diagnostic evaluations. This session reviews the law, then explores ways for SLPs to contribute to RtI initiatives while maintaining a balanced workload."
Middle and High Schools
Duffy, H. (2007). Meeting the needs of significantly struggling learners in high school: A look at approaches to tiered intervention. In National High School Center, American Institutes for Research.
"This brief first defines the RTI model, drawing from various examples established in K–8 settings. The brief then explores implications of applying RTI to the high school level and provides resources appropriate for this application. In particular, this brief points to the promise that RTI constructs hold for monitoring instruction and learning for all students at the high school level and specifically for monitoring the success of targeted interventions focused on transitions and dropout prevention."
Free – PDF
Ehren, B., & Whitmire, K. (2007). RTI gets promoted to secondary schools [Webinar transcript]. In National Center for Learning Disabilities.
"Experts Barbara Ehren and Kathleen Whitmire discuss challenges and solutions for implementing RTI at the secondary level, and share strategies for bringing effective supports to adolescents through collaboration between educators and families."
National High School Center, National Center on Response to Intervention, and Center on Instruction. (2010). Tiered interventions in high schools: Using preliminary “lessons learned” to guide ongoing discussion. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.
In this report, the High School Tiered Interventions Initiative (HSTII) summarizes what they have learned about effective implementation of RTI in high schools and “how those lessons learned can advance [these] ongoing discussions. This report is grounded in available research and the professional wisdom of leading researchers and practitioners, including staff members from eight high schools implementing tiered interventions.” This link also includes a webinar series discussing RTI implementation in high schools.
Torgesen, J. K., & Miller, D. H. (2009). Assessments to guide adolescent literacy instruction. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
“This document was prepared to assist literacy specialists and other technical assistance providers in their work with states to improve educational policy and practice in adolescent literacy.” It discusses how assessments can be used to improve literacy instruction and provides examples of how assessment systems are being used to guide instruction.
Parents and Families
Cortiella, C. (2006). A parent’s guide to response-to-intervention. In National Center for Learning Disabilities.
"IDEA includes a new provision that allows States and school districts to use high quality, research-based instruction in general and special education to provide services and interventions to students who struggle with learning and may be at risk or suspected of having learning disabilities. NCLD has written this Guide to provide an overview of the RTI process, describe how it is implemented in schools and offer questions that parents can ask."
Free – PDF
Fuchs, L. S. & Mellard, D. F. (2007). Helping Educators Discuss Responsiveness to Intervention with Parents and Students. [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.
“NRCLD developed this question-and-answer paper to help [educators] understand the many issues related” to RTI and respond to parents and students’ questions related to RTI.”
Klotz, M. B., & Canter, A. (2006). Response to intervention: A primer for parents. In National Association of School Psychologists.
This article explains a) the essential components of Response to Intervention, b) key terms, c) the role Response to Intervention plays in special education eligibility, d) how parents can be involved in the process, e) potential benefits of RTI, and f) next steps in implementing RTI approaches.
Mellard, D. F., McKnight, M. A., Deshler, D. D. (2007, December 15). The ABCs of RTI: A Guide for Parents. Lawrence, KS: National Research Center on Learning Disabilities.
This pamphlet includes information on RTI as well as examples of how RTI implementation may look like in practice. It also includes parents’ rights regarding RTI and special education.
NEW! Tools and Intervention Materials
Center on Instruction. (2008). RTI CTRL: Response to Intervention Classification Tool and Resource Locator. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
This classification tool and resource locator guides “states to relevant resources” and allows states to measure their “level of RTI implementation in” the following areas: definition of RTI and alignment with existing initiatives, leadership, implementation capacity, and instruction aspects of implementation.
National Center on Response to Intervention. (2010, November). Instruction Tools Chart. Washington, DC: National Center on Response to Intervention.
This chart includes the review of research studies on instructional tools by the National Center on Response to Intervention’s Technical Review Committee.
National Center on Response to Intervention. (2008). Screening Reading Tools Chart. In National Center on Response to Intervention.
The Screening Reading Tools Chart examines results from the first annual review of screening reading tools by the Center’s Technical Review Committee (TRC). Included are the standards by which the TRC reviews each tool and a detailed description of how a rating was defined. Also included is information on each tool from vendors/developers including: intended use, cost, specifics needed for implementation, and with whom each tool should be used. This chart is intended to support educators and families as they select reading screening tools that will best meet the needs of their students.
National Center on Response to Intervention. (2009). Progress Monitoring Tools Chart. In National Center on Response to Intervention.
The Progress Monitoring Tools Chart “provides ratings on the technical adequacy of progress monitoring tools used within an RTI context. The tools were rated against criteria for general outcome measures, or mastery measures. Additional information on how to implement them can be found on the chart as well. The information in the chart is intended to assist educators and families in becoming informed consumers who can select progress monitoring tools that best meet their individual needs.”
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