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Diversity and Disproportionality

Diversity and DisproportionalityArticles in this section address many aspects of working with diverse student populations. In the introductory article, John Hosp of Florida State University presents background information on the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education programs and describes how the core principles of RTI have the potential to address issues surrounding disproportionatlity. Read "Response to Intervention and the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education." »




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Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

Process of designing instruction that is accessible by all students; UDL includes multiple means of representation, multiple means of expression, and multiple means of engagement; the focus in creation of UDL curricula is on technology and materials.

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RTI in Reading for English Language Learners

This article briefly highlights the knowledge base on reading and RTI for ELLs, and provides preliminary support for the use of practices related to RTI with this population.

Response to Intervention in Reading for English Language Learners »



Response to Intervention: Implications for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

There is growing evidence that RTI can provide effective interventions for English language learners who struggle with reading. This article provides information to help educators design instruction to meet the specific language and conceptual needs of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners within an RTI framework.
Response to Intervention: Implications for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners »


Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families

Working with children and families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds poses special challenges to early childhood educators. To meet the needs of all members of the school community, efforts should be made to ensure that the school system as a whole and each of its components strives to achieve “cultural competence."

Working With Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families »



Framing Urban School Challenges: The Problems to Examine When Implementing RTI

Stressing the importance of considering racial, ethnic, and cultural realities of students, Roey Ahram and authors discuss the benefits of RTI and how RTI can meet the needs of urban schools. In Part 1 of this article series, they explain five prerequisites to ease cultural and racial disparities, which lay the groundwork for implementation of a RTI program and in turn raise expectation for student achievement.

Framing Urban School Challenges: The Problems to Examine When Implementing RTI »



Cultural Adaptations When Implementing RTI in Urban Settings

In part 2 of this article series, Chemay Morales-James and a team from New York University’s Metropolitan Center for Urban Education outline cultural adaptations to consider when developing and implementing an RTI framework in urban settings. They also define a culturally responsive RTI approach to guide schools that are addressing disproportionate representation of minorities in suspension and special education.

Cultural Adaptations When Implementing RTI in Urban Settings »



Promising Examples of RTI Practices for Urban Schools

In the final article of the RTI and urban school series, Alan Ripp and a team specializing in urban education provide a conceptual and structural framework, as well as practical examples, that support urban school-systems in successfully implementing RTI/PBIS. Distinguishing the model by tier, the authors demonstrate how RTI can change common problems in the urban-school environment, focusing on instruction, data-monitoring, teacher-supports, and other factors.

Promising Examples of RTI Practices for Urban Schools »



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